Understanding MIL-STD-810 and How to Use It

Understanding MIL STD 810
Understanding MIL STD 810

Understanding MIL-STD-810 is essential for proper developmental evaluation of the environmental effects on equipment.  CVG Strategy has been helping our customers use this valuable standard to create test programs for over a decade.  In this time we have seen a number of commonly held misconceptions about the standard and how to use it. 

What is MIL STD 810?

MIL-STD-810 is used to evaluate the influences of environmental conditions on equipment during all phases of its life cycle through laboratory tests.  This Department of Defense military standard includes 29 methods for analysis of those effects.  These methods include climatic (temperature, humidity, solar, etc.) and dynamic (e.g. vibration, shock, pyroshock). 

With the exception of one of these methods, there are no established severities or pass/fail criteria.  Why?  Because these variables are dependent on the type of equipment being tested and where it is to be used.  For example, when performing high temperature testing; the appropriate high temperature for equipment intended for a vehicle crew compartment is very different than one for an engine compartment or the exterior of a supersonic aircraft.

How to Use the Standard

The secret to understanding MIL-STD-810 is in the seldom read Part 1 of the standard.  Part 1 establishes a process for evaluating the relevant environmental stressors likely to be encountered in the product’s life time.  This includes storage, transport, and operational configurations.  It provides a tailoring process to create realistic design parameters and test methods.

One tool that this tailoring process entails is the creation of a Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP).  This process identifies all the environmental stresses from shipping dock to end of life.  Metrics can then be fed into an Environmental Issues/Criteria List (EICL) that can be used as design and test parameters. 

When measured data for a given stress is known, that data should be used.  When a value is not known, guidance is provided in the standard for realistic evaluation based on climatic and measured dynamic variables.

Developing a Plan

The first task is to create a Test and Evaluation Master Plan (TEMP) that outlines all the testing to be performed.  This can include multiple tests for each method.  Using high temperature again as an example,  it is often prudent to perform testing for transport, storage and operational tests, each with its specific values and temperature profiles. 

Each of these tests should have a Detailed Environmental Test Plan (DETP) to exactly specify how the test is to be conducted.  This description should include required operational tests, data to be recorded, and pass/fail criteria.  People often ask test labs to create test plans.  This is not the best solution as the lab does not have a thorough understanding of the equipment and cannot perform the LCEP and EICL steps of the tailoring process.

Operational Testing and MIL-STD-810

MIL-STD-810 has, with increasing intensity, stressed the importance of operational testing.  Climatic and dynamic stressors can often cause intermittent failures of equipment.  It is therefore of great importance to create operational testing that exercises all modes of operation. 

It is also important to create equipment that can monitor the equipment and capture those failures.  This process is one that is often overlooked.  As a result, testing performed does not provide substantive evaluation of the test item.

CVG Strategy Can Help

We provide a variety of services to help you garner the most from your test and evaluation program.  Understanding MIL-STD-810 and how to use it can help you develop a more effective product test program.  CVG Strategy offers webinars to increase your knowledge of the entire standard.  These courses stress the importance of the tailoring process and empower you to create appropriate test programs. 

We can create LCEPs and EICLs that reflect your product’s needs.  We provide EZ-Test Plan Templates for product segments such as Ground Mobile, Shipboard Controlled, and Aircraft Military.  Our test and evaluation experts can also create custom test plans for your product requirements.

To assist your product development during this Covid-19 crisis we offer test program management and test program witnessing.  This frees your team from travel requirements and ensures that testing is performed as specified.  CVG Strategy is partnered with labs in the Florida area to help you. 

MIL-STD-810H Change 1 Revises Method 509

MIL-STD-810H change 1
MIL-STD-810H change 1

MIL-STD-810H change 1 Environmental Engineering Considerations and Laboratory Tests was released by the Department of Defense (DoD) on May of 2022.  Although changes in the standard were few, Method 509 Salt Fog has been entirely rewritten.  Method 509.8 is now titled Salt Fog / Corrosive Environments and is comprised of three procedures.

Procedures for Salt Fog / Corrosive Environments

This test method now contains the following procedures:

  • Procedure I – Corrosion Screening
  • Procedure II – Design Corrosion Verification
  • Procedure III – Natural Environment

Procedure I – Corrosion Screening, most closely resembles the salt fog testing of previous revisions of MIL-STD-810.  It is intended for equipment and representative coupons to evaluate protective coatings and finishes.  It is applicable for the identification of design flaws and quality control deficiencies in a short period of time.  This method is to be performed in a salt spray test chamber in a testing laboratory.

Procedure II – Design Corrosion Verification is intended for verification of system designs and is to be performed early in product development.  This testing should, when practical, be conducted on actual components, subsystems, or avionic subsystems. 

This evaluation is to be tailored to specific corrosion types as specified by the Cognizant Engineering Authority (CEA) from the procurement agency.  Required testing is dependent on intended environments and may include corrosive pollutants such as sulfur dioxide modified salt fog.  These additional requirements are to be performed in accordance with a variety of test standards including ASTM B117, ASTM G85, and GMW 14872.

Procedure III – Natural Environment is to be performed to verify the corrosion resistance of coatings and system designs.  This testing involves the use of mock-up test specimens in natural locations for extended durations.  As with Procedure II, testing methodologies are to be specified by the CEA.

Other Changes for Salt Fog Testing

For Procedures I and II, refinements in MIL-STD-810H change 1 have been made in the preparations and methodologies employed.  Changes in handling and configuration, preparation of the salt solution, and recommendations for preheating of pressurized air will require test program personnel and test facility engineers to ensure that laboratory equipment is correctly configured for accelerated corrosion testing.

Additions have also been made for possible effects of corrosion, pretest ambient checkout, and test interruption.  Additionally, guidance is provided for post test analysis of possible physical, electrical, and corrosion effects that may have resulted from the Salt Fog / Corrosive Environments testing.

Tailoring for Environmental Testing

The secret to using the MIL STD 810 is in the seldom read Part 1 of the standard.  Part 1 establishes a process for evaluating the relevant environmental stressors likely to be encountered in the product’s life time.  This includes storage, transport, and operational configurations.  It provides a tailoring process to create realistic design parameters and test methods.

The authors of MIL-STD-810 have consistently stressed the need for tailoring in the test and evaluation process.  Tailoring is performed by matching the severity and duration of a test to its anticipated environments’ stressors.  This is accomplished through specifications provided by the acquisition agency and by performing a Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP).

The LCEP was introduced in MIL-STD-810D and refined to its current status in MIL-STD-810G.  It provides an analysis of climatic and dynamic stresses likely to be encountered by materiel during storage, logistic transport, tactical transport, and operation.  From this analysis, a list of environmental issues and criteria (EICL) can be produced that will assist in the design and test of military components.

The LCEP process is integral to the development of relevant Test Plans that will provide meaningful information for design verification and validation.  This can greatly reduce the cost of development by identifying potential design deficiencies early in product development.

CVG Strategy Can Help

Our team of test and evaluation experts can assist you in creating a meaningful test program that meets requirements and prevents costly failures at the operational test stage.  CVG Strategy provides an array of services to help you with environmental and EMI/EMC testing. 

Our instructors have decades of experience in laboratory test and evaluation of military and commercial products.  We understand the importance of testing and getting a properly designed product to market in a timely fashion. 

We also offer classes in MIL-STD-810H change 1 to help you keep current with the latest developments in this important standard.  This instruction includes extensive coverage of the tailoring process and how to use it your product development.  Our courses are available online and on location. 

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Fungus MIL-STD-810 Method 508

Fungus MIL-STD-810 Method 508
Fungus MIL-STD-810 Method 508
Aspergillus mold

Fungus MIL-STD-810 Method 508 evaluation is employed to assess a product’s susceptibility to support fungal growth. This test method is an important part of a testing program because fungus is present in a large number of environments and has numerous detrimental effects.

Effects of Fungus 

Direct and indirect attacks can occur to products of natural origin as well as synthetic materials such as polyvinylchlorides, polyurethanes, polyethers, paints, and varnishes. Additionally, fungus can cause damage to electrical systems and optical systems.

Health effects from ingestion or inhalation of mycotoxins from certain species of Aspergillus mold, a fungus, can lead to skin rash, inflammation of mucus membranes, liver damage, and cancers.

Considerations

Although the standard contains an Annex to identify the basic resistance of materials to fungal growth test by analysis is not recommended.  This is because of the combination of materials and their ability to support fungal growth are beyond the scope of such an analysis.

Fungus testing should not normally be conducted on the same item as used for Salt Fog/Corrosive Environments, Sand and Dust, Humidity, or Acidic Atmosphere.  If these methods are performed before the Fungus method, residues left on the test item may hinder or accelerate fungal growth.

Fungus Species

A number of species are used in this method.  These include Asperfillus flavus, Tricoderma virens, Talaromyces pinophilus, Chaetomium globosum, and Aspergillus brasilensis.  These species are representative of destructive fungi found around the world.  These species have also been selected as they are rated at Biosafety Level 1 and therefore present minimal threat to human health.

Because of the threat to human health and the fact that the procedure calls for highly-specialized techniques, it is essential that only technically qualified individuals perform these activities.  

Facility Requirements

Test chambers are to be used that prevent condensation from dripping on the test item.  The chamber should be monitored with sensors to allow for control of temperature and humidity.  Minimal airflow is used for this method, generally under 0.5 meters/second.  The chamber should be decontaminated in accordance to the guidance of Annex A in the standard.

Preparation of Test Item

It is preferable to use a new test item for this method.  Before being introduced into the chamber, the unit should be cleaned, not sterilized, using a damp cloth.  This cleaning should be conducted at least 72 hours before placing the item in the chamber.  If cleaners other than water are used it should be noted in the test report.

A mixed sport suspension is then created and incubated.   It is then verified for its ability to create fungus growth.  Control strips are created from unbleached, plain weave cotton and sterilized.  These are placed in the chamber to verify the spore solution is capable of producing fungus in the chamber. 

The test item and cotton strips are then inoculated and left in the chamber.  The chamber is kept at 86 ± 3.6 °F (30 ± 2 °C) and a relative humidity between 90 percent and 100 percent for the test duration of 28 days.  

Fungus Procedure

On day 7 the cotton control strips are inspected to verify at least 90 percent coverage from mold growth and again at 14 days.  If there is no increase in mold growth after 14 days the test must be restarted.

Once the 28-day duration has passed with successful results, the test item is inspected for fungus growth.  It should be noted that operational or use of the test item is only to be used if essential to requirements.  The results of the inspection are then recorded for the final report.

Decontamination

A complete procedure for the decontamination of equipment is described in Annex A of Method 508.  Again, this activity, as with others described above, are to be performed by suitably trained personnel (e.g., microbiologists).  This should be performed in a suitable facility with appropriate personal protective equipment.

Detailed Environmental Test Plans

CVG Strategy offers EZ-Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC testing documentation.  Our DETPs are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground MobileGround Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate methods, (such as Fungus MIL-STD-810 Method 508) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ-Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our services can assist your engineering team with Fungus MIL-STD-810 Method 508 or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Humidity MIL-STD-810 Method 507

Humidity MIL-STD-810 Method 507
Humidity MIL-STD-810 Method 507

Humidity MIL-STD-810 Method 507 is used to evaluate the ability of products to resist the effects of exposure to warm humid climates.  This evaluation can be performed in a test facility using environmental chambers where costs or product scheduling is a consideration.  The method provides test cycles for natural or induced exposures representative of a variety of global exposures.

Effects of Humidity Exposure

Temperature-humidity conditions can have a wide array of effects on equipment.  It can cause accelerated oxidation of metals, increase the rate of chemical reactions, breakdown coatings, interact with dusts and other deposits to create corrosive film, and cause binding or sticking.  Additionally, it can cause changes in the properties of materials that result in loss of strength, delamination, degradation of lubricants, and degradation of insulators.  When allowed to condense, humidity can cause short circuits and change thermal transfer characteristics.

Limitations of Laboratory Testing

Laboratory testing cannot replicate all the effects associated in a natural environment in humid areas. The method is intended to simulate a stressful environmental condition that can reveal potential problem areas in equipment design or choice of materials.  Specifically this test method does not address condensation caused by changes of pressure for airborne equipment or the synergetic effects of multiple environmental stressors.

Procedures for Humidity Testing

There are two humidity testing procedures available for Humidity in MIL-STD-810: 

  • Procedure I – Induced and Natural Cycles are designed to replicate natural exposures to warm humid environments.  Induced cycles are designed to replicate conditions in contained environments where air circulation is limited such as storage and transit conditions.   
  • Procedure II – Aggravated does not replicate naturally occurring cycles of humidity but exposes the test item to extreme temperature and humidity for shorter durations (usually 10 twenty-four-hour cycles).  This can be useful for ascertaining if the test item is susceptible to humidity, but the standard recommends caution in the interpretation of results.

Humidity Cycles

MIL-STD-810 in conjunction with MIL-HDBK-310 and NATO STANAG 4370 define three geographical categories for humidity that are applicable to Procedure I:

  • Constant high humidity (B1) is typical of tropical areas, and seasonally, some mid-latitude locations.  These locations are typically in heavily forested areas during rainy seasons where solar radiation exposure is unlikely.  
  • Cyclic high humidity (B2) can be found in the same locations as B1 but where forest cover is limited (such as in urban areas) and solar radiation creates a more differentiated diurnal exposure.  
  • Hot-Humid (B3) represents conditions that occur on a narrow coastal strip in the Red Sea and Persian Gulf.  These conditions occur naturally about 10 to 15 times a year.  Although this cycle is in many ways the most extreme, it is not to be used in lieu of testing in other exposures if expected in the Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP).

The standard provides diurnal cyclical test schedules for all three environmental profiles for both natural and induced conditions.

Test Durations

An effective humidity test requires long periods of exposure.  This can place strains on schedules and budgets, especially when multiple profiles must be run.  Test duration requirements are broken down into two categories, hazardous items and nonhazardous items.  Hazardous items are defined as equipment that if subject to unknown deterioration could result in damage to equipment or result in injury or death to personnel.  

For humidity cycles B1 and B2 this means that for hazardous items, a minimum of ninety cycles is required to simulate natural exposures and one hundred and eighty for induced (storage and transit).  For non-hazardous items the durations are half of these values.  B3 cycle durations are thirty for hazardous and fifteen for non-hazardous.  

As previously mentioned, Aggravated humidity, requires a minimum of ten cycles which can make it an attractive alternative if permitted by requirements or when perceived vulnerability to humidity exposure is minimal.  

Test Sequence Considerations

Prolonged exposures to humidity may compromise the integrity of seals, coatings, and plastics among other components.  It therefore is not advisable to use the same item for this method as for Salt Fog/Corrosive Environments, Sand and Dust, Acidic Atmosphere, or Fungus.  Additionally, the standard recommends performing dynamic testing, such as shock and vibration, prior to humidity, as the cumulative effects of these tests could identify design flaws.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC test documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground Mobile, Ground Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate methods, (such as Humidity MIL-STD-810 Method 507) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our services can assist your engineering team with Humidity MIL-STD-810 Method 507 or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 506

Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 506
Photo by Anand Rao Bhaskar

Rain, MIL-STD-810, Method 506 is used to evaluate materiel likely to be exposed to rain, water spray, or dripping water during storage, transit, or operation.  It can  also be used to evaluate seals, enclosures, and covers to prevent ingress of water, access effectiveness of water removal systems, and evaluate the physical deterioration of materials due to exposure to water.

The method is not appropriate, however, for evaluating the effects of flight through rain, evaluation of pressure washers or decontamination devices, or the effects of extended light precipitation.  It is also not intended for evaluating equipment to atmospheric effects caused by rain. 

Available Procedures for Rain Testing

MIL-STD-810 has three procedures to evaluate materials ability to withstand rain:

  • Procedure I – Rain and Blowing Rain is used to evaluate items that  will be deployed in conditions that are unprotected from rain.  This procedure uses a rainfall drip rate of 4 inches per hour (1.7 mm per minute) as a minimum for testing. 

The simulated rain must be comprised of droplets of approximately 500 μm in diameter.  Unless otherwise tailored, the test uses a wind velocity of 40 mph (18 m/s).   The test item should be stabilized to a temperature 18 °F (10 °C) higher than the water being used for rain. 

  • Procedure II – Exaggerated uses rain simulated with overlapping pressure nozzles.  This method is often used when the test item is too large to be tested with the blowing rain method.  While it does not simulate rain, it can be used to a degree of confidence in the watertightness of an item.  The test incorporates a 50 psig (276 kPa) pressure with a flow rate of 5.5 gallons per minute (20.8 liters per minute).
  • Procedure III – Drip is used to simulate the conditions where items may be exposed to falling water from leakage in a storage area or drops caused by condensation.  This test uses a minimum rate of 7 gallons per square foot per hour (280 liters per square meter per hour).

The Challenges of Preventing the Penetration of Water

Wind blown rain creates resonances that can penetrate gasketing materials used in covers, cases, and seals. In many cases, test items that have passed immersion testing can still have ingress problems with blowing rain.  These problems create issues for designers in any number of fields where rain exposure is expected.  Where MIL-STD testing is not applicable, other standards are available for ingress protection testing such as IEC 60529. 

IEC 60529 is typically applied to commercial products and their ability to keep the environment from interfering with the operation of a product. Ratings are defined by the letters IP followed by two digits and an optional letter.  It classifies the degrees of protection provided against the intrusion of solid objects (including body parts like hands and fingers), dust, accidental contact, and water in electrical enclosures. The standard aims to provide users more detailed information than vague marketing terms such as waterproof.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ-Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC testing documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground MobileGround Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate test methods, (such as Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 506) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified by the Department of Defense.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ-Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our testing services can assist your engineering team with Rain, MIL-STD-810, Method 506, or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Solar Radiation (Sunshine) MIL-STD-810

solar radiation sunshine MIL-STD-810
solar radiation sunshine MIL-STD-810
Photo by Bruno Scramgnon

Solar Radiation (Sunshine) MIL-STD-810 Method 505 is used to evaluate thermal and actinic effects on equipment caused by exposure to the sun.  This testing is performed in specially designed environmental chambers.  This test methodology can be tailored to simulate spectral exposures at high altitudes where increased levels of Ultraviolet (UV) light are present. 

This method has two procedures, Procedure 1 – Cycling and Procedure 2 – Steady State.  Procedure 1 is used to evaluate response temperatures caused by simulated solar exposure.  Procedure 2 investigates the actinic effects on test items to simulated long term exposure to sunlight. 

While both procedures use artificial lighting to simulate solar exposures, different levels of radiation are used in testing.  While cycling uses expected levels of exposure, steady state uses levels of approximately 2.5 times normal exposure.

Thermal Solar Radiation Effects and Testing

Equipment can experience numerous effects from solar induced temperatures.  These include changes in strength or elasticity, degradation of elastomers and polymers, delamination of coatings and adhesives, and loss of seal integrity.  

Equipment that is exposed to solar radiation in induced conditions, such as a vehicle crew compartment, may experience extreme differential heating.  In such cases it preferred that Solar Radiation (Sunshine) testing be performed as opposed to solely relying on Method 501 High Temperature testing.  This testing can be performed using mocked up enclosures that simulate the expected exposures.  

Normal test duration for this procedure is at least three 24-hour cycles.  If the maximum of the previous 24-hour during three cycles, then the cycles are repeated until the peak temperatures are reached or seven cycles have been performed.

Actinic Effects of Solar Radiation and Testing

Actinism is a property of solar radiation that causes photochemical and photobiological reactions to occur.  Materials exposed to the sun can be degraded by Ultraviolet radiation.  This can result in chalking and fading of coatings, deterioration of elastomers and polymers, and fading of colors in plastics and fabrics.  Natural exposures of UV rays vary according with altitude as there is less atmospheric interference at higher altitudes.  

Testing for actinic effects with Procedure 2 requires a 4-hour lights off period for each 24-hour cycle to allow for thermal cycling.  For equipment that is continuously in an outdoor environment a minimum of 56 cycles is recommended.

Special Considerations for Testing

There are a number of items that should receive special consideration when planning solar radiation testing:

  • Tailoring is required to determine which method and level of testing is required.  This is of great importance as this testing is costly and can require significant time.  Guidance for irradiance and spectral distribution at high altitudes can be found in Annex A of the standard.
  • The use of arc type lights presents significant dangers to humans and can cause sunburn and blindness.  Care should be taken to ensure that exposure to high UV levels is prevented.
  • Arc lamps can cause a buildup of ozone.  Care should be taken in adequately monitoring ozone and removing concentrations of the gas from enclosed areas.
  • Care should be taken to ensure that temperatures do not exceed desired levels as ignition of materials may occur.  
  • The combined effects of temperature and solar radiation can cause outgassing of VOCs, Carbon monoxide, and Phthalates.  Care should be taken to monitor for these gasses with sensors to protect personnel.
  • Xenon lamps ignition pulses can exceed 60 kV.  Additionally, these bulbs can explode violently.  
  • Finally, spectral power distribution must be monitored and maintained.  This involves the use of pyranometers and spectroradiometers. Significant guidance is provided in the standard in Annexes B and C to address these concerns.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ-Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC testing documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground MobileGround Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate test methods, (such as MIL-STD-810 Solar Radiation (Sunshine) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified by the Department of Defense.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ-Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our testing services can assist your engineering team with Solar Radiation (Sunshine) MIL-STD-810 Method 505, or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Contamination by Fluids MIL-STD-810 Method 504

contamination by fluids mil-std-810
contamination by fluids mil-std-810
Image by deepakrit from Pixabay

Contamination by Fluids, MIL-STD-810 Method 504 evaluates equipment’s ability to withstand exposure to various chemical agents that equipment may come in temporary contact during its life cycle.  These chemicals include oils, insecticides, coolants, disinfectants, fire extinguishants, de-icing and anti-freeze fluids, oils,  solvents and cleaning fluids.

Chemicals can have a wide number of effects on the operation and reliability of equipment.  It can among other things, compromise surface coatings, cause failure of gasket materials, compromise insulting materials, cause swelling of rubbers and plastics, and induce corrosion. 

Health Warnings

The chemicals used for fluid contamination can be injurious to health and unsafe for the environment.  Care should be taken as specified in suppliers Safety Data Sheets (SDS).  Appropriate Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) should be used when using these chemicals.  This test procedure involves mixing of chemicals and, upon occasion, applying them at high temperatures. 

Care must be taken to ensure that harmful reactions do not occur and that ignition of the chemicals does not occur.  This procedure should only be performed by personnel that have received appropriate training. Additionally, chemicals used in this testing must be disposed of in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations.

Contamination by Fluids Exposures

Three levels of exposure are defined in MIL-STD-810:

  • Occasional – For occasional the test item is to be exposed to the chemical(s) for 5 to 10 minutes.  If this exposure is to be at above ambient temperature based on typical life cycle environmental exposure then the item is to be held at temperature for 8 hours.
  • Intermittent – Intermittent exposures to chemicals are for 8 continuous hours.  The test item is then to be air dried with the chemical for 16 hours at the temperature identified in the Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP) plus one hour at ambient.
  • Extended – For extended contamination the test item is to be exposed for 24 hours, held at specified temperature for 8 hours and then brought to ambient temperature.

Test Temperatures

Equipment can be often be exposed to chemicals at elevated temperatures when operated.  This exposure could be normal or accidental such as a hydraulic fluid leak.  When this is the case it is important to consider the flash point of chemicals involved and potential evaporation so that ignition does occur and adequate ventilation is applied.

Test temperatures may also be lower than ambient when expected environmental conditions during exposure are expected as would be the case when exposed to de-icing agents.

Contaminant Fluid Groups

Method 504 – Contamination by Fluids contains a list of chemicals used in military applications.  This is a useful tool, as the list provides most of the commonly used chemicals along with possible uses and source documents.  There may be other chemicals, however, that have been identified in the LCEP process.  If this is the case be certain that the test facility has access to all necessary information for those chemicals.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ-Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC testing documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground MobileGround Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate test methods, (such as MIL-STD-810 Contamination by Fluids) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ-Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our testing services can assist your engineering team with Contamination by Fluids MIL-STD-810 testing or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Low Temperature MIL-STD-810 Method 502

Low Temperature MIL-STD-810 method 502
Low Temperature MIL-STD-810 method 502
Photo By: Navy Senior Chief Petty Officer RJ Stratchko

MIL-STD-810 Low Temperature testing (Method 502) is used to evaluate the effects of low temperature on equipment.  This laboratory test method is conducted in a test chamber and can be tailored to replicate the anticipated thermal profiles during storage, transit, and operation.  This test is intended for evaluating the effects of low temperature on equipment and is not intended for replicating the effects of temperature conditions at high altitudes.

Procedure Selection

Defense standard MIL-STD-810 provides three test procedures for Low Temperature; Storage, Operation, and Manipulation. 

  • Procedure I – Storage is used to assess the effects of low temperature on equipment in an induced environment.  An induced environment refers to a man-made condition.  In the case of Low Temperature it would include situations natural airflow is restricted by means of packaging or unconditioned enclosures.  In such cases temperatures may reach levels as low as -60°F (-51°C) for areas such as the interior of Alaska.
  • Procedure II – Operation is used to evaluate the test item’s ability to operate as specified when subjected to low temperatures.  These operating temperatures could be the result of ambient climatic conditions or specific thermal profiles present in an intended operational environment.
  • Procedure III – Manipulation is used to assess how easily equipment might be operated, assembled, maintained, or disassembled when operators are wearing heavy winter clothing.

Determining Test Levels

It is necessary to tailor appropriate test temperature cycle and temperature range values from requirements, measurements, and those derived from the Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP).  Geographic climatic information is available in Part 3 of the standard to assist in value determinations.  MIL-STD-810 uses three categories for defining cold environments:

  • Basic Cold (C1) describes cold temperatures found in most of Europe, coastal areas of Canada, high latitude coastal areas, and the northern 84 states.
  • Cold (C2) describes anticipated cold temperatures in Canada and Alaska (excluding interior areas) Northern Asia and Scandinavia, and high elevations in the mountain ranges of the Alps, and Andes.
  • Severe Cold (C3) includes temperatures found in the interior of Alaska and Canada, Canadian Islands, and Greenland.

When the equipment to be tested is considered to be likely to for worldwide use a value the C3 Severe Cold levels should be used for test.  This temperature would be -60°F (-51°C).

Test Duration

Low Temperature can cause a large number of effects on equipment.  For certain types of equipment the standard calls for extended durations of exposure to cold temperatures to ensure that the material can perform as specified without degradation of integrity or safety.

  • For equipment that is not safety related or nonhazardous a storage period of four hours is required
  • For munitions and explosives or equipment that have rubber or plastic components seventy-two hours of exposure is required.  This is due the fact that these materials may degrade or deteriorate after long periods of exposure.
  • For equipment that include restrained glass, or ceramics, twenty-four hours of exposure is required.

Test Program Considerations

It is often a requirement for product verification that Low Temperature be performed early in a program to determine if design changes or are required.  However, consideration should also be given to the synergetic effects of multiple environmental stressors.  If concerns exist that the test item might become more brittle it may be advantageous to combine Low Temperature testing with dynamic test such as vibration or shock. 

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ-Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC testing documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground Mobile, Ground Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate test methods, (such as MIL-STD-810 Low Temperature) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ-Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our testing services can assist your engineering team with MIL-STD-810 Low Temperature Testing or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

High Temperature MIL-STD-810 Method 501

MIL-STD-810 High Temperature
High Temperature MIL-STD-810

MIL-STD-810 High Temperature testing (Method 501) is used to evaluate the effects of high temperature on equipment.  This laboratory test method is conducted in a chamber and can be tailored to replicate the anticipated thermal profiles during storage, transit, and operation.  This test is intended for evaluating short term effects of heat on equipment and is not intended for replicating the effects of months or years of exposure.

Procedure Selection

Defense standard MIL-STD-810 provides three test procedures for High Temperature; Storage, Operation, and Tactical-Standby to Operational. 

  • Procedure I – Storage is used to assess the effects of high temperature and low humidity on equipment in an induced environment.  An induced environment refers to a man-made condition.  In the case of High Temperature it would include situations natural airflow is restricted by means of packaging or unconditioned enclosures.  In such cases temperatures may reach levels as high as 160°F (71°C).
  • Procedure II – Operation is used to evaluate the test item’s ability to operate as specified when subjected to high temperatures.  These operating temperatures could be the result of ambient climatic conditions or specific thermal profiles present in an intended operational environment, such as an engine compartment.
  • Procedure III – Tactical-Standby to Operational is used where equipment may be subjected to temperature exposures in enclosed environments such as cockpits and then be immediately required to operate.  In such cases it often recommended to determine maximum temperatures induced from solar radiation.  This can be accomplished by measuring temperatures on the intended platform or conduction Solar Radiation (Sunshine) testing prior to High Temperature. 

Determining Test Levels

It is necessary to tailor appropriate test temperature cycle and temperature range values from requirements, measurements, and those derived from the Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP).  Geographic climatic information is available in Part 3 of the standard to assist in value determinations.  Additionally, twenty-four hour high temperature cycles for both ambient and induced environments are available in the method that include typical relative humidity levels.

As with most MIL-STD-810 methods, measured data when available is preferred for determining test values.  This is particularly the case for environments such as engine compartments or in situations in which solar radiation may be a factor in determining maximum temperatures.

Test Program Considerations

It is often a requirement for product verification that High Temperature be performed early in a program to determine if design changes or are required.  However, consideration should also be given to the effects of High Temperature on the Unit Under Test’s (UUT). 

High Temperature can cause lasting effects that could compromise a products ability to function in other environmental tests.  An example of which could be the failure of an adhesive that could cause failures in dynamic tests.  When this may present a significant risk, it is appropriate to evaluate where this method should line up in the over all test plan’s sequence.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC testing documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground Mobile, Ground Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate test methods, (such as MIL-STD-810 Low Pressure) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our testing services can assist your engineering team with MIL-STD-810 High Temperature Testing or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

MIL-STD-810 Low Pressure (Altitude) Testing

mil-std-810 low pressure
mil-std-810 low pressure

MIL-STD-810 Low Pressure (Altitude) testing is performed to evaluate equipment’s ability withstand exposures to low pressures.  These pressures may occur while the equipment is in storage, logistic transport, tactical transport, or actual operation.  This method (500.6) is one of twenty-nine laboratory environmental tests in the standard.

Low Pressure (Altitude) Procedures

The Low Pressure method is comprised of four testing procedures.  Dependent on requirements and the Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP) of the equipment to be tested, one or more procedures can be performed.  

Procedure I – Storage/Air Transportation is in intended for equipment that will be transported by air or stored at high altitudes.  For ground transport and storage, 15,000 ft. (4,572m) is the accepted maximum standard test altitude.  This same value is accepted as a standard pressure for pressurized aircraft altitude testing.

Procedure II – Operation/Air Carriage is to be performed to evaluate equipment in operational modes at low pressure.  The equipment is placed in an environmental chamber and brought to the desired pressure and temperature at which point tests are performed to ensure that the Unit Under Test (UUT) can perform as designed in all modes of operation.

Procedure III – Rapid Decompression is used to determine if rapid decreases could result in a rupture or other malfunction of the UUT that would cause potential harm to the aircraft in which it is being transported in or personnel in the area. 

This test procedure starts with an initial chamber pressure of 8,000 ft. (2,438m) (10.9 psia or 75.2 kPa) and a final chamber pressure of 40,000 ft. (12,192m) (2.73 psia or 18.8 kPa).  The decompression between these two pressure levels is to be accomplished in not more than 15 seconds.

Procedure IV – Explosive Decompression is to be performed as Procedure III except that decompression time is 0.1 seconds.

MIL-STD-810 Requirements for Tailoring

Proper test and evaluation as defined in MIL-STD-810 Low Pressure (Altitude) requires tailoring.  This tailoring should consider a complete Whole Life Assessment of environmental stressors likely to be encountered by the materiel in question.  Obviously, these stresses will vary greatly dependent on the platform for which it is designed.  Equipment designed for the exterior of an aircraft will have very different LCEP than equipment designed for a ground vehicle engine compartment.

Once this study has been completed, appropriate test methods, procedure selections, and test parameters can be established and documented in a Test and Evaluation Master Plan (TEMP).  These parameters can then be used in the creation of a Detailed Environmental Test Plan (DETP).  The DETP should also contain functional and operational tests that are to be performed before, during, and after chamber testing.  

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC test documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in Department of Defense standard MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground Mobile, Ground Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate methods, such as MIL-STD-810 Low Pressure (Altitude) Method 500 addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Sand and Dust MIL-STD-810 Method 510

Sand and Dust MIL-STD-810
Sand and Dust MIL-STD-810

Sand and Dust MIL-STD-810, Method 510 testing is used to evaluate equipment’s ability to withstand exposure to blowing sand and dust.  This test is to be performed in environmental chambers and replicates natural exposures expected in hot-dry regions of the world.

The standard defines dust as particles with a diameter less than 150 μm.  Sand is defined as particles with a diameter between 150 to 850 μm.  The standard further defines the prescribed composition of these particles to be used in the procedures.

Effects of Exposure to Sand and Dust

Sand and Dust can cause numerous effects on equipment that can result in serious degradation of performance or complete failure.  Abrasion, erosion, and penetration of seals can occur.  Effects caused by the interference of moving parts as particles enter into crevices, bearings, and joints can render equipment ineffective or hinder use.  Additionally, when particles obstruct openings and vents, they can cause overheating.

Recent Revisions to This Test Method

The Sand and Dust test method was completely rewritten in Revision H, which was released in 2019.  Changes were made to ensure that a more realistic distribution of particles in test chambers during a test.  These changes led to the redesign of chambers in many test facilities and resulted in dust chambers being reduced in size.  It is therefore important to make certain that chambers are available if you are testing larger equipment.

Revisions in MIL-STD-810 usually occur to create more realistic test environments using the latest available technology.  In most cases there are few reasons to test to older revisions of the standard.  This would especially be the case for this particular method.

Test Procedures for Method 510

There are two procedures in Method 510, Procedure I – Blowing Dust, and Procedure II – Blowing Sand:  

Procedure I – Blowing Dust

Blowing Dust is conducted using specific air velocities.  When measured data is not available the following representative values are to be used:  An air velocity of 300 ±200 ft/min (1.5 ±1 m/s) is to be used to maintain test temperature conditions, and an air velocity of 1750 ±250 ft/min (8.9 ±1.3 m/s) is to be used to replicate desert winds.  Typically, these wind speeds are to be uniformly across the area of the test item.

Temperatures should reflect the intended environments expected to be encountered in the equipment’s life cycle.  Normally, this would include Hot Dry (A1) temperatures that would be found in the deserts of Asia, Africa, Australia, and North America.  For ambient exposures, this would be 120 °F (49 °C), although higher temperatures can be employed to account for solar loading on equipment.

As moisture in the test chamber can result in caking of the dust, it is important to control the levels of relative humidity (RH).  For the blowing dust procedure, the RH should not exceed 30 percent.

As previously mentioned, dust composition is specified in the standard.  Normally, red China clay or silica flour is used, unless otherwise specified.  Testing should be conducted for at least 6 hours at ambient temperature and 6 hours at the specified high temperature. 

The test item may be rotated during testing to ensure that all faces have equal exposure.  If necessary, operational tests should be conducted.  These should be performed for at least 10-minute durations.

Procedure II – Blowing Sand

Blowing Sand should, unless otherwise specified, use the same temperatures as used in Blowing Dust.  Generally, a wind velocity of 40 mph (18 m/s) or higher is used for testing.  As the sand used in testing should have an angular composition, the reuse of sand from previous tests is not allowed, as the impact of particles will result in increased roundness of sand particles.

This test should be performed for a minimum of 90 minutes per side of equipment normally vulnerable to exposure.  Required operational testing should be considered when writing a test plan.  

Special Considerations for Sand and Dust Testing

Test Sequencing

Sand and Dust MIL-STD-810 Method 510 testing causes abrasion and will produce a coating of dust on test items.  This could influence the results of testing performed after this method for Humidity, Solar Radiation, Fungus, Salt Fog/Corrosive Environments, and Acidic Environments.  Care should be taken when developing the Test and Evaluation Master Plan.

Safety Concerns

Inhalation of particles of dust and sand pose significant health hazards.  Silica flour which is composed of ground quartz can cause silicosis.  Appropriate personal protective equipment should be utilized to prevent exposure.

Electrostatic Energy

High levels of electrostatic electricity can buildup due to the combination of dry air with moving particles.  It is important to consider adequate grounding schemes to prevent discharges that could damage the test unit.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ-Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC testing documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground MobileGround Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate test methods, (such as Sand and Dust MIL-STD-810 Method 510) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified by the Department of Defense.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ-Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our testing services can assist your engineering team with Sand and Dust MIL-STD-810 Method 510, or any other test and evaluation concern.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

MIL-STD-810 Method 528 Mech. Vibration of Shipboard Equip.

MIL-STD-810 Method 528
MIL-STD-810 Method 528
Photo By: Navy Petty Officer 2nd Class Keith Nowak

Mechanical Vibrations of Shipboard Equipment, MIL-STD-810, Method 528 is performed to meet U.S. Navy requirements for environmental and internally excited vibration of equipment designed for installation aboard navy ships.  These vibration tests were derived from MIL-STD-167 and was added along with lessons learned to MIL-STD-810 in Revision G.

As with other testing for Naval requirements, this testing is normally performed as designated in the method.  Any tailoring of test procedures must be approved by the the acceptance authority.  The term tailoring, as used in MIL-STD-810, is the process of selecting and altering design test characteristics, and tolerances, to account for environmental stresses expected in the life cycle of the equipment to be evaluated.  

Procedures for Shipboard Vibration

Procedure I (Type I) – Environmental Vibration

Procedure I is used to simulate exposure to vibration caused by conventional shafted propeller propulsion.  Testing can be tailored for shipboard equipment subjected to nonconventional propulsor types such as waterjet or podded propulsors.  

For this procedure, the Unit Under Test (UUT) is to be secured to the test machine using the same points or areas of attachment as intended for securing it shipboard.  The UUT should be mounted in the orientation of intended use.  Equipment must be tested in its operational modes.

Testing is performed in three phases.  The first phase is an exploratory test to determine the presence of response prominences or resonances in the UUT.  Testing may be performed in 1 Hz intervals for the range of 4 Hz to 33 Hz or swept frequency of the same range if the rate of sweep does not exceed. 0.067 Hz/second. 

This testing is performed on three axis and any prominences are to be recorded.  These prominences will be considered to as frequencies  for the third phase of testing, endurance.

The second phase of testing for procedure I is a variable frequency test in which the UUT is subjected to vibration of increased amplitudes for five minutes at each integral frequency.  Special consideration for frequency range is provided for equipment intended for a single type of ship.  As with the previous testing, prominences are recorded for consideration for endurance testing.

Endurance testing is then performed for the most prominent resonances noted in previous testing.  At a minimum this testing is to have a total time of 2 hours.  Test duration is based on the number of prominences. 

If no prominences were noted the test is to be performed at 33 Hz or the highest specified frequency.  Increased vibratory displacements are required for mast mounted equipment.

Procedure II (Type II) – Internally Excited Vibration

MIL-STD-810 Method 528, Procedure II is applicable to rotating machinery and is performed to minimize vibrations caused by the equipment.  It is also performed to reduce bearing wear and noise.  The testing places limitations on the vibration output of the equipment and the deflection of rotors.  This testing is important to prevent mechanical failures of adjacent structures and equipment and prevent health effects of Whole Body Vibration (WBV).

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC test documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in Department of Defense standard MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground Mobile, Ground Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate methods, (such as Mechanical Vibrations of Shipboard Equipment MIL-STD-810 Method 528) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Rail Impact MIL-STD-810 Method 526

Rail Impact MIL-STD-810
Rail Impact MIL-STD-810
Photo by Charles Haacker

Rail Impact MIL-STD-810 Method 526 replicates railcar impact conditions to evaluate tie down systems and tie down procedures used in the transport of equipment.  This test is not a laboratory test but is performed actual rail cars involved in the impacts during coupling.  It normally involves car impact testing at speeds under 8 mph (12.9 km/h). 

The rail impact method is based on requirements for commercial railroad car transport as defined by the Association of American Railroads (AAR).  This test methodology is not intended to simulate railcar crash conditions.  It is also not applicable to small individually packaged equipment that would would be palletized.  Special consideration and reviews are required for explosives and ammunition by appropriate authorities.

Rail Impact MIL- STD- 810 and Test Tailoring

Unlike most methods in MILSTD-810, this method is not generally tailorable except in cases requiring extraordinary attention.  Any and all tailoring must have review and approval of the test procedure by the director of the The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC). 

Risk analysis should be performed when considering the sequence of testing for Rail Impact.  In cases where a high risk of material damage is expected this test should be performed early in the test program if feasible.  Consideration should be given to any effects these shocks could have on the electromagnetic behavior of the test item.

Methods of simulation may be used when analysis of the test item’s ability to withstand rail impact shocks is desired.  Shock samples have been computed for use in design specifications.  These may be uses in dynamic models for these simulations.

When evaluating test results, a number of possible effects should be considered during post test evaluations.  These include the loosing of restraints, shifting of material on railcar, equipment failure, fuel spills, any created safety hazards, and structural failures.

Test Setup for Rail Impact 

Rail Impact MIL-STD-810 is conducted using actual railcars in motion.  A test railcar is used to carry the test item which is secured on the car with chain tiedowns.  The test railcar is moved using a railcar mover or locomotive. 

If a locomotive or railcar mover is not available, an inclined section of track may be used.  The minimum length of track required is 200 ft. (61 m).  

When testing is performed, the test railcar is accelerated to specified speeds to impact a buffer car or cars.  The minimum required weight of the buffer car(s) is 250,000 lb. (113,400 kg).  

Loads are to representative of the intended test item.  Wheeled vehicles are to have tires inflated to manufacturer highway recommended pressures.  Fuel tanks are to be at filled to 75% of capacity.  Vehicles may be placed in lowered transport modes when equipped with variable height or pneumatic suspensions with manually inserted suspension stops installed.  

When the test item is a trailer, it is to be tested in both a connected and disconnected configuration with its prime mover.

Regardless of vehicle type, the test item should be fully loaded at its maximum gross weight unless it is a vehicle used for material handling such as a dump truck or wrecker.  Vehicles are to be in worse case configurations with parking brakes disengaged and transmissions in neutral.

Test Procedure

The test item is to be subjected to four impacts during testing.  These are to be conducted at speeds of 4, 6, and 8 mph (6.4, 9.7, and 12.9 km/h) respectively.  The fourth impact is to be performed is performed at the top stated speed with the test item in the opposite direction. 

Once the impacts have been performed the item is inspected for any loosening or failure of tie down mechanisms, shifting of the test item on the railcar, structural failures, fuel spills, or damage to the tested equipment.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC test documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in Department of Defense standard MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground Mobile, Ground Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate methods, (such as Rail Impact MIL-STD-810 Method 526) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Common Cybersecurity Weaknesses for CUI Protection

Common Cybersecurity Weaknesses for CUI
Common Cybersecurity Weaknesses for CUI
Photo by Tima Miroshnichenko

Recent reports from the Department of Defense (DoD) outline common cybersecurity weaknesses for Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI) protection by contractors.  CUI is information that is possessed or created for the U.S. government that, by law, requires dissemination controls and safeguarding.  These required security controls are specified in NIST SP 800-171.  When prospective contractors respond to the DoD about their cybersecurity capabilities they must attest that they comply with security requirements or will comply in the future.  

The five audit reports, submitted from 2018 to 2023 contained assessments of 29 DoD contractors that are currently providing defense products and services.  These reports are being used in the investigations of contractors alleged to have knowingly misrepresented their compliance to NIST SP 800-171.  These investigations are being conducted by the United States Department of Justice (DoJ).

The reports from the DoD Office of Inspector General (OIG) outline weaknesses identified in federal government contractor officials verification processes that ensure contractor compliance with NIST SP 800-171 requirements.  It also outlines inconsistencies in DoD contractor’s implementation of these cybersecurity requirements.

Inconsistencies in Contractor Implementation of Required Controls

Multifactor Authentication or Strong Passwords

It was noted that contractors audited in the assessments had insufficient enforcement of the use of strong passwords.  Additionally, these same organizations often failed to implement multifactor identification.  Multifactor authentication is a requirement for accessing non-privileged network and system accounts.  Password complexity enforcement is a requirement where multifactor authentication where single factor authentication is in use.

System Activity and User Activity Reports

The report noted multiple failures of organizations to conduct regular generation and review of system activity and user activity reports.  Regular performance of this function allows for identification of unauthorized access attempts that could lead to the breach of sensitive information.  Information gained from this activity can also be used as forensic evidence when investigating malicious events.

Disabling Inactive User Accounts

Contractors assessed failed to disable user accounts after extended periods of inactivity in half of the assessments conducted.  The NIST SP 800-171 requirement is used to prevent outdated or unused accounts from being used as penetration points for gaining access into an information system.

Physical Security

In a majority of the assessments conducted, it was discovered that contractors failed to implement sufficient physical security controls for the monitoring of facilities.  These controls include devices such as video cameras that can allow organizations to identify and respond to security events.

Network and System Vulnerabilities

NIST SP 800-171 has requirements for conduct regular scans for network and system vulnerabilities.  Vulnerabilities that are discovered should be documented and addressed in an organizations Plans of Actions and Milestones (PoAM) so that network and system weaknesses can be mitigated.

Scanning for Viruses and Malicious Code

This basic cybersecurity activity was not performed on networks and systems in half of the assessed organizations.  NIST SP 800-171 has requirements for periodic scans of networks and systems as well as real-time scans of external sourced files to detect malicious code.  These requirements include updating virus definitions and full-disk scans.

Weaknesses in DoD Verification Processes

The report noted areas in which DoD contracting officials had insufficient verification processes for ensuring contractor compliance to NIST SP 800-171 requirements.  The areas corresponded with the reported inconsistencies of contractor implementation with the addition of the failure to recognize deficiencies in the protection of CUI on removable media.

The control of removable media on system components requirements are designed to restrict access to media and the use of certain types of media on systems.  This would include the restriction or prohibition of flash drives and external hard disk drives.  Applicable controls would include excluding use to devices provided or approved by the organization. 

The requirement is designed to ensure that only authorized personnel can access and transfer data using removable media.  It further ensures that any data transferred is protected from unauthorized access or disclosure.

Results of the Reports

As a result of the report, 116 recommendations were given to divisions within the Department of Defense.  These recommendations are being instituted to improve assessments conducted by DoD contract officials.  Additionally, these reports will focus contract officials attention to the reported deficiencies in future contractor assessments.  It is therefore, recommended that organizations seeking contracts pay particular attention to their compliance status in these areas.

CVG Strategy Information Security Management System Consultants

This DoD report on common cybersecurity weaknesses for CUI protection will be used by contracting officers to assess contractor performance for future contracts and grants.  Therefore it is in the best interest of organizations involved in defense contracts to ensure that their information security programs address these issues.

To assist businesses to meet the challenges in adopting CMMC 2.0 standards, CVG Strategy has developed an approach that combines the requirements of CMMC compliance with the ISO 27001 information security management system.  This provides a coherent methodology for implementing and maintaining essential cybersecurity for businesses of any size.

We can help you meet your information security management system goals.  CVG Strategy QMS experts are Exemplar Global Certified Lead Auditors.  We can provide the training required to understand and engage in a ISMS and make it meet desired objectives. This process includes defining the context of your organization, creation of internal auditing processes and much more. 

Identify Areas With CUI with CVG Strategy Signs

CVG Strategy provides signs to identify areas containing CUI and export controlled items. These signs should be posted at all facility entrances where products are being produced or services are being performed that are under the control of the U.S. Department of State Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) and are subject to the International Traffic in Arms Regulations per title 22, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Parts 120-130.

Freeze-Thaw MIL-STD-810 Method 524

Freeze-Thaw MIL-STD-810
Freeze-Thaw MIL-STD-810
Photo by Pixabay

Freeze-Thaw MIL-STD-810 Method 524 is used to evaluate equipment’s ability to withstand transitions in temperatures through the freeze point in the midst of ambient temperatures and when transitioned from environments of varying temperatures.  Effects of exposures to these environmental conditions include: binding or distortion of parts, failure of seals, adhesives, and materials, and fogging of optical equipment during the freeze-thaw phenomena.

Test Procedures for Freeze-Thaw

Three laboratory test procedures are available in the test standard for this MIL-STD-810 test method.  All are to be conducted in a laboratory test facility.

  • Procedure I – Diurnal Cycling Effects.  This procedure simulates exposures that vary from slightly above and below the freeze point.  This test simulates night time freezing and daytime warming.  
  • Procedure II – Fogging.  This procedure is intended for equipment that is designed to not fog or has built in capabilities to de-fog optical components.  Typical applications would include aircraft stores, such as missiles, moving from a cold to warm environment.
  • Procedure III – Rapid Temperature Change.  This procedure simulates equipment being moved from a warm to cold environment and then being returned to warm causing condensation to occur on the equipment.

Test Parameters

Temperatures ranges for testing normally cycle between 41 °F and 14 °F (+5 °C and -10 °C) for diurnal cycling and 14 °F (-10 °C).  These temperatures can be varied as required to effectively simulate the desired environmental effects. 

As with other MIL-STD-810 methods, the use of appropriately pure water is important for representative testing.  Chemicals such as calcium carbonate, which are often found in water supplies can clog nozzles used in providing water vapor or sprays.  Guidance for water purity can be found in Part 1 paragraph 5.16 of the standard.

Performance of Procedures II an III generally require the utilization of two environmental chambers to effect sudden temperature changes.  Temperature changes within a chamber should not exceed 5.4 °F (3 °C) per minute to prevent thermal shock.

For Procedure I – Diurnal Cycling the minimum required number of freeze-thaw cycles is twenty.  For Procedures II and III the minimum number of cycles is three.  Normally the Unit Under Test (UUT) should be held at each test temperature for a minimum of one hour.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC test documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in Department of Defense standard MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground Mobile, Ground Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate methods, (such as Freeze-Thaw MIL-STD-810 Method 524) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two-day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring relevant to the test item’s expected life cycle. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Icing/Freezing Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 521

Icing/Freezing Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 521

Icing/Freezing Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 521
Photo By: Andrea Jenkins

Icing/Freezing Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 521 testing is used to verify that equipment can operate when exposed to ice accumulations from rain, drizzle, or sea spray.  Freezing rain tests can also be used to evaluate de-icing equipment and techniques.

Types of Ice Used in Testing

Two types of icing is likely to occur in natural exposures: 

  • Rime ice is formed when supercooled water drops come in contact with a surface.  These deposits of ice are white, opaque, and granular.  Rime ice is categorized into Hard rime which is often deposited on vertical surfaces by freezing fog and soft rime which is which can often occur on the windward side of an object and has a structure similar to frost.  
  • Glaze ice deposits are clear and smooth but may contain some air pockets.  These deposits occur when supercooled water droplets freeze from drizzle or rain.  These coatings of ice are denser and have a greater likelihood of posing structural stresses.  Glaze ice is generally used in this test method.

Test Tailoring Considerations

Consideration should be given to the expected ice loading based on the anticipated Life Cycle Environmental Profile (LCEP) of the test item.  The standard recommends thicknesses of 0.24 inches (6 mm) to 3 inches (75mm).  Heavier loading are representative of marine deck and mast loadings.

The standard recommends a water delivery rate sufficient to create a coating of 1 inch/hour (25mm/h).  It is important that water purity as specified in Part 1 of the standard be used in testing.

Detailed Environmental Test Plan Templates

CVG Strategy offers EZ Test Plan Templates for MIL-STD environmental (climatic/dynamic) and EMI/EMC test documentation.  Our Detailed Environmental Test Plans (DETP)s are written as specified in MIL-STD-810 Task 405.  They are available for specific applications such as Ground MobileGround Stationary, and Shipboard Controlled, Shipboard Uncontrolled, and Aircraft Military.

These DETPs include appropriate methods, (such as Icing/Freezing Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 521) addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets for collection of required data. Profile (LCEP). 

Our Electromagnetic Interference Test Plans are written as specified in MIL-STD-461.  They contain the test methodology, addendums for product specific information, test labels for photo identification and data sheets.  These plans are available for procedures listed in MIL-STD-461 and are also available for MIL-STD-1275, MIL-STD-704, and MIL-STD-1399-300. 

Custom Test Plans are also available for applications not covered in the EZ Test Plan offerings.  These plans can be written for any number of applications and their relevant standards.

MIL-STD-810 Training Classes

CVG Strategy MIL-STD-810 classes will provide you with the ability to develop and conduct an environmental test program.  Our two day course not only provides you with valuable information about climatic and dynamic test methods but also includes training in the methodology to correctly apply test tailoring. 

This course is available online or onsite.  Ample time is available for questions and comments so that participants are encouraged to keep engaged.  Check here for our online Training Registration Schedule.

Put CVG Strategy’s Experience to Work for You

Companies of all sizes, from start up to established product developers, face challenges in product test and evaluation.  This can particularly be the case when a product is developed for a new market sector or expanding sales internationally.

Properly tested products prevent costly product recalls, product redesign, and product liability.  They maintain customer satisfaction and keep your company’s reputation in good standing.  Contact CVG Strategy to see how our services can assist your engineering team with Icing/Freezing Rain MIL-STD-810 Method 521 or any other test and evaluation concern.