EMI and Device Coexistence in Today’s RF Environment

emi and device coexistance
emi and device coexistance

The Growth of RF Spectrum Usage, EMI and Device Coexistance

Increased reliance on radio frequency communication has created issues for Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) and Device Coexistence.  Cellular devices and equipment using the Internet of Things (IoT) are major causes of this increase.  This has effected product development strategies for both commercial and defense applications, particularly for safety critical devices where unexpected operation or complete failure is not an option.

Product Design Considerations

Understanding the possible RF environments a product will operate in is essential during the specification phases.  Often conducting a thorough Susceptibility Analysis is required to develop an understanding of the variety of sources that could compromise a products performance and their probable signal strengths.  Equipment that can be expected to operate in radio rich environments such as airports can be expected to encounter high internet usage as well as radar and radio communications. 

For communication devices the crowded electromagnetic spectrum is it making more difficult to ensure reliable connections.  As an example the Department of Defense (DoD) is working to design a communication system known as the Wideband Adaptive RF Protection Program to develop adaptive filters to prevent signal cancelling.  For other such devices establishing minimum desired levels of reliability and developing protocols for re-transmission can be a solution.

Techniques for Evaluation


For EMI/EMC susceptibility a number of standards are in place that can prove sufficient in assessing equipment’s abilities to operate as specified in a busy RF spectrum.  Often these tests are not requirements for categories of equipment compliance, so a product developer must be proactive in seeking these methods out.  Once an appropriate method has been found signal strengths and dwell times can be modified to achieve the desired level of product verification that replicates the anticipated environment of operation.

Wireless Coexistence

For wireless coexistence there are fewer options.  One possibility is ANSI C63.27-2017 “American National Standard for Evaluation of Wireless Coexistence”.  Although its primary application is medical equipment it can be used for any wireless application.  This testing can be used to:

  1. Develop user guidance necessary to achieve a desired level of reliable operation. In this case the deliverables can be guidance to the user on the maximum recommended operational distance between communicating devices and the minimum recommended separation distances to equipment that has the potential to cause loss of FWP due to interference.
  2. Determine the potential for successful operation of the Functional Wireless Performance (FWP) with regard to coexistence. The deliverables for this purpose can be a risk assessment, written with the intention that it be a part of a larger and more extensive total risk assessment for the product.
  3. Estimate the user experience. When the purpose is to predict the user experience, the test results are applied to the understanding of the intended operating environment to estimate the user experience in the intended operating environments. In estimating user experience, additional factors, beyond those included in testing, are involved. The resulting estimation has an evaluation uncertainty, which includes the Measurement Uncertainty (MU) of the test results, the estimation of the variability in the operating environment, and the certainty of the operating environment data used in preparing the estimate.
  4. Diagnose complaints and failure reports, reproduce those field environments, and qualify modifications that remediate the product performance. With this objective, the deliverables will include evidence that the problematic field environment has been reproduced and that test modifications can be expected to achieve desired levels of performance.
  5. Identify the intended environment parameters at which the EUT fails to coexist.

CVG Strategy Can Help With EMI and Device Coexistance

CVG Strategy EMI/EMC consultants can provide susceptibility analysis and recommend appropriate test methodologies for verification a product’s ability to perform as specified in today’s congested spectrum.  Contact us today to see how we can help. 


Public Sector Quality Management

public sector quality management
public sector quality management

Public Sector Quality Management Applications

There have been numerous attempts at implementing public sector Quality Management Systems (QMS) in the past decades.  These attempts have had mixed results due to a number of factors.  Many programs at the federal level, such as those incorporated by the Department of Defense (DOD) in the 1970’s, have been examples of success and continue to be effective in the increase of productivity.  Several states, including Florida, have incorporated programs to  to ensure Management Excellence, Customer Satisfaction, Treatment Excellence and Cost Efficiency in service delivery.  Municipal applications have striven to pursue quality of public services by Identifying and addressing community priorities, collaborating across departments, and ensuring accountability, transparency and measured results.

Differences Between Public and Private Sectors

There are obvious differences between the public and private sectors that inhibit effective quality management of government.  The public sector is not driven by market issues and does not need to maintain a competitive edge.  It is often driven by short term perspectives.  It faces a rotating tier of elected and appointed upper management that makes consistent application of a program difficult.   The public sector also has a tendency to rely on established processes at the expense of efficiency.

Public Transportation and QMS

Public transportation has been a good application for QMS.  This is largely due to availability of solid metrics.  Ridership, customer satisfaction, and effectiveness of vehicle and facility maintenance being such examples.  This is particularly important at a time where many transit arenas are showing  reduced ridership.  Of those programs that have been most effective focus has gravitated towards customer satisfaction, attracting new customers, and reducing costs.

The Need For QMS at the Top

For effective QMS businesses have realized that buy in is required by all stake holders and that upper management must fully embrace processes and the requirement for continual improvement.  Unfortunately this is not the case in very large bureaucracies where there is not a cohesive set of policies across departments.  Additionally, many programs do not have sufficient requirements for proactive evaluation of quality metrics.  In the case of the DOD for example, this often leads to cost overruns caused by quality issue delays in program development.

The Future of Public Sector Quality Management

While the need for effective QMS in the public sector is becoming more desirable due to limits in funding, many issues will need to be overcome in its implementation.  Key among these issues are a culture of complacency and a reluctance to change.  Growth in public sector makes these changes more and more necessary and many administrations of late have undertaken initiatives to make these changes.  It will be interesting to note how these systems evolve.


Airbus ITAR and Bribery Penalties Over $3.9 Billion

Airbus ITAR and Bribery Penalties
Airbus ITAR and Bribery Penalties

Airbus ITAR and Bribery a Massive Multi-year Scheme

The Department of Justice recently announced that Airbus ITAR and Bribery Penalties would amount to more than $3.9 Billion in fines to the United States and United Kingdom.  Airbus, based in France, is a leading global manufacturer of commercial and military aircraft.  This case, which involved the coordination of multiple international law enforcement agencies, found that Airbus used third party business partners to bribe government officials and airline executives around the world. 

Charges filed in the United States included conspiracy to violate the anti-bribery provisions of the Foreign Corrupt Practices (FCPA) act and conspiracy to violate the International Traffic in Arms Regulations ITAR.  The nearly 4 billion dollars in fines constitutes the largest global foreign bribery resolution to date.  Airbus engaged in bribery in China, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Indonesia, and Ghana.  They then engaged in further corruption by concealing those bribes.  This scheme took place between 2008 and 2015 and involved Airbus personnel located in the United States.

Sensitive Defense Technologies Involved

Because sensitive defense technologies were involved in this corruption case, ITAR violations were also committed.   The ITAR are export regulations that prohibit export of defense related technologies to restricted nations.  Violation of ITAR can result in serious criminal and civil penalties.  It can also result in loss of ability to export.  All companies must classify products and services to determine the degree of control required for export to a foreign citizen or foreign chartered corporation.  They must also ensure that all parties to a sell are legitimate and that products will not be unlawfully redistributed. 

Airbus engaged in a criminal conspiracy to knowingly and willfully violate the AECA and ITAR, by failing to provide DDTC with accurate information related to commissions paid by Airbus to third-party brokers who were hired to solicit, promote or otherwise secure the sale of defense articles and defense services to foreign armed forces. 

ITAR Specific Penalties

ITAR specific violations that Airbus committed from 2011 and 2019 involve ITAR part 130 – Political Contributions, Fees and Commissions.  This involved failure to maintain accurate records and report statements of fees or commissions paid to facilitate sales.  Other violations unauthorized retransfers of defense articles from Spain and reexport of defense articles from Spain to Australia.  In a civil settlement Airbus agreed to a 3 year assignment of a Special or Internal Compliance Officer, implementation of extensive remedial compliance measures, and $10 million in for the remedial compliance measures.  Additionally if agreed penalties are not paid, or sufficient corrective actions taken, Airbus faces being debarred or suspended from export transactions.

CVG Strategy

ITAR compliance is important for any company involved in controlled products and services.  While the Airbus ITAR and bribery penalties resulted from a flagrant violation of the law, government export enforcement agencies have shown a increased vigilance in their activities.  As with any other set of laws ignorance is not an excuse.  Get your ITAR questions answered today by our experts.

Infrastructure and Manufacturing Cyberattacks

Infrastructure and Manufacturing Cyberattacks
Infrastructure and Manufacturing Cyberattacks

Cyberattacks Strike Infrastructure and Manufacturing

Infrastructure and manufacturing concerns pose tempting targets for cyberattacks.  When considering Cyber Security first thoughts usually go to computers and information technology, but industrial devices and processes can fall victims to attacks.  On February 18, 2020 the Department of Homeland Security Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) reported on a cyberattack that effected the Operational Technology (OT) of a natural gas compression facility.  This event led to a controlled shutdown that lasted for about two days.  The attack involved ransomware using a Spearphishing Link.  The event was finally rectified when replacement equipment was installed and configurations reloaded.  Perhaps the biggest takeaway from this event is that the facility’s emergency response plan focused on physical emergency scenarios and that no plan was in place for cyber incidents. 

A Large and Serious Problem Not Easily Solved

Most industrial sites were constructed before the age of cybersecurity.  Where information technology has been introduced, legacy systems are often in place with little or no IT support.  Many facility managers or maintenance personnel have insufficient expertise in IT and requisite cybersecurity protocols.  This has created systems with high vulnerabilities that are extremely difficult to secure.  These type of attacks have occurred at petrochemical facilities, and even nuclear power plants, making this a very real threat beyond the immediate sites.

While remedying technology security deficiencies and addressing critical personnel IT shortages are necessary, developing effective cybersecurity management systems capable of handling massive and complex systems is a more critical and less easily solved problem.  This would involve developing a fully comprehensive analysis of vulnerabilities and development of risk management based strategies.  It would also involve extensive incident mitigation planning.  While cybersecurity management systems such as ISO 27001 exist, implementation of an effective program for a complex industrial site requires serious effort and planning to undertake. 

CVG Strategy

CVG Strategy consultants provide training to make your entire team aware of cyberattacks and how to employ processes to prevent these threats.  We can assist with reviews of policies, risk assessment approaches, and best practices to build management systems capable of handling complex cybersecurity requirements.


Product Packaging Evaluation for Durability

product packaging evaluation
product packaging evaluation

The Need for Adequate Product Packaging Evaluation

Product packaging evaluation is essential for a product’s success.  Excellent design and proper manufacture mean little if the product delivered to the customer is damaged.  Assessing packaging requirements requires an understanding of the product to be shipped fragility and a knowledge of the nature of transportation and storage scenarios likely to be encountered during transportation.

Environmental Stressors During Transportation

There are numerous stresses a packaged product will face during transportation and storage.  These stresses include dynamic forces such as shock, vibration, and drop.  They also include climatic conditions such as heat, cold, and humidity.  Additionally, for electronic products, electrostatic discharge, especially during handling can lead to complete malfunction or product degradation. 

Early evaluation should identify all possible modes of transportation and locations of storage.  These identifications should include realistic assessments of the duration of each step so that valid criteria of stress severities can be collected.  Once collected, perspective packaging methods can be chosen.

The Changing Nature of Packaging

With a marketplace more reliant on online sales, cardboard is becoming increasingly in demand.  Worldwide production of cardboard is increasing to meet this demand and prices for cardboard packaging is increasing.  As consumers and OEMs strive towards more environmentally sustainable behaviors, it is predicted that the overall use of plastics in packaging will decrease, placing further demands on the cardboard industry.

Cardboard while an excellent choice for many packaging needs has vulnerabilities.  These issues include crushing, piercing, water resistance, compression during stacking, and failure when overloaded.

Test and Evaluation of Packaged Products

There are numerous methods for the evaluation of packaged products including ASTM, Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI), and ISO.  Many proprietary methods are required of vendors by their customers as is the case in the automotive sector.  These methods, once performed, can provide a reasonable assurance that a packaged product can reach its destination in good shape, ensuring customer satisfaction. 

As mentioned before, storage during and after the transportation phase should be taken into consideration.  Storage can often occur in uncontrolled environments that subject the package and product to induced environmental stresses.  Temperatures can be reached that greatly exceed those in the outside environment such as a warehouse without HVAC in hot climates.

CVG Strategy

CVG Strategy can assist product packaging evaluation.  We can provide a provide analysis of transportation and storage requirements and recommend appropriate test methodologies for verification and validation of packaging.  We can also provide test witnessing and test program management for a wide array of product sectors.

ISMS System – 27k1 Ltd appoint CVG Strategy LLC

ISMS System
ISMS System

17th February 2020 – Company Announcement

ISMS SystemISMS System




27k1 Ltd Appoint CVG Strategy LLC as First, US Reseller of 27k1 ISMS System

According to the latest ISO 2018 Survey, demand for ISO/IEC 27001 certification in the US has increased by 37% since 2017. Given this growth trajectory and recognizing that ISO 27001 is the global, “gold standard” in information security certification, 27k1 Ltd is delighted to announce that it has taken steps to introduce the 27k1 ISMS (Information Security Management System) software to the US market, appointing CVG Strategy, LLC, as its first US based system reseller.

Many companies are struggling with the implementation of a compliant ISMS for NIST 800-171 using ISO 27001 as solution.  Now, with the U.S. Department of Defense’s announcement of Cybersecurity Maturity Model Certification (CMMC) replacing NIST 800-171, ISO 27001 ISMS will be much easier to implement for all sizes of organizations.  Now, with the 27k1 ISMS System software to support the effort, companies can abandon the spreadsheet approach to process control.

About CVG Strategy LLC

CVG Strategy, based in Viera, Florida is an established Information Security consultancy, focused on delivering a range of Governance, Risk and Compliance solutions, including US DoD Standards, NIST and ISO 27001.

The business is owned and operated by Cindy and Kevin Gholston, who are highly qualified ISMS practitioners. Their team possess extensive knowledge of Quality, ITAR and Export Compliance, Product Test and Cybersecurity. Complemented by effective training and implementation services, their staff include Exemplar Global Certified ISO 27001:2013 Lead Auditors and CISSP Experts.

Directors Comments

Jeremy Martin, Co-Founder of 27k1 Ltd stated that “we are thrilled to be working with CVG Strategy, given their expertise, customer base and their enthusiasm for supporting their customers through the ISO 27001 certification process. Moreover, following the UK’s recent exit from the European Union, we look forward to closer trading relationships between US and UK businesses.”

Similarly, Cindy Gholston, President of CVG Strategy remarked that “In the 27k1 ISMS System we have finally found a total, software compliance solution that takes us away from using spreadsheets, templates and paper documentation. The intuitive design of the system will allow our customers to become more involved with information security and risk management, better understanding their position and at the same time, secure their place on federal and international supply chains.”

ISMS System Pricing

The 27k1 ISMS is priced at US$1,960.00 for a 1 year’s subscription, including full product support. For more information, please visit  https://27k1.com

27k1 Ltd, 25 Main Street, Staveley, Kendal, Cumbria, LA8 9LU, UK

Economic Espionage by China Threatens US Businesses

Economic Espionage by China
Economic Espionage by China

Economic Espionage by China Effects Businesses and Citizens of the U.S.

Economic Espionage efforts by China continue to pose a serious threat to the United States.  On February 10, 2020 BBC News reported that the US Department of Justice has charged members of the People’s Republic of China’s military with the 2017 Equifax cyberattack that resulted in the breach of names, birth dates, and social security numbers of more than 147 million U.S Citizens.  The breach also cost Equifax the theft of proprietary database designs, $700 million dollars in fines to the Federal Trade Commission, and a severe erosion of its trust in the eyes of public perception.

This development comes on the heels of reports that the FBI is conducting approximately 1,000 investigations into suspected theft of intellectual properties conducted by China.  FBI director Christopher Wray commented that companies that have fallen victim of these attacks are in every sector of our economy and include research facilities at universities.  While arrests in these types of cases have increased, the crimes being undertaken are by no means abating.

A Call to Action

While China is not the sole nation to threaten U.S. interests with cyberattacks, its activities have, unlike others, focused on economic espionage and intellectual property theft.  Clearly China intends to be the dominant economic global force by any and all means available.  U.S. businesses therefore must engage in effective strategies to protect their interests and remain vigilant. 

The FBI has also warned U.S. executives of partnering with Chinese parties as vendors or customers.  Christopher Wray pointed out that while such opportunities might look good for near term profitability, that the long term threat to intellectual and sensitive data did not warrant taking such risks.

CVG Strategy Can Help

CVG Strategy can assist you in establishing and maintaining a viable and dynamic Information Security Management System (ISMS) by achieving ISO 27001 certification.  An ISMS is a comprehensive approach to securing data that involves all stakeholders in a risk assessed managerial approach.  It involves processes, facility security, people, and IT systems to engage in best practices.  It also involves a constant improvement approach so that threats can be continually assessed and addressed as they evolve.  This business system can help your business remain vigilant against economic espionage and cyberattacks conducted by China or other nations.


Medical Equipment EMC Susceptibility

Medical Equipment EMC Susceptibility
Medical Equipment EMC Susceptibility

Medical Equipment EMC and Electrical Susceptibility Issues

Incidents of medical equipment EMC susceptibility failures highlight the necessity of adequately accessing the electrical and electromagnetic environment of modern medical facilities.  Many of these were featured in the January 2020 IN Compliance Banana Peels column.  While the need for reliable operation of medical equipment is obvious, this requirement is shared by many types of equipment that involve critical safety concerns.  Often product developers depend on compliance requirements for verification of their products capabilities, but this should approach should not encompass the entire product assessment process for safety critical devices.

Understanding Possible Causes of Failures

Electromagnetic Interference (EMI)

EMI can damage electronic circuits or cause intermittent functional anomalies. EMI can be generated by environmental factors. Sources of naturally occurring EMI include:
• Radio Atmospheric – (Sferic) Broadband impulses that occur as a result of lightning.
• Solar Radiations – Including Solar Flares and Aurora Borealis resulting when charged particles emanating from the sun interact with Earth’s magnetic field.
• Cosmic Noise – Radiation caused by planets and other stars other than the sun. (Generally, this does not pose a significant risk to modern electronics.)

EMI can also be caused by other electrical and electronic systems in the proximity of a device.  Potential sources of interference include any number of analog or digital sources including the intentional jamming of Wi-Fi devices.

EMI can be classified into broadband and narrowband. Broadband EMI is usually from unintentional radiators. Sources of broadband include power convertors, electrical motors, and digital circuits. Narrowband is usually generated by intentional transmitters. These include TV and radios stations, cellular phones, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth devices.  EMI can enter a circuit either by radiated energy or energy coupled onto wiring such as power inputs. These energies are further categorized into radio and magnetic. Magnetic refers to low frequencies generally below 100 kHz. Radio extends from 100 kHz to the GHz range.

Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

Electronic products are potential sources of energy that could interfere with the normal operation of electronic devices in the vicinity. This energy may be transmitted both in radiated and conducted forms.  Radiated may be comprised of digital signals generated by the circuitry, energy generated by Point of Load (PoL) voltage regulators, or inappropriate usage of intentionally radiated Bluetooth or Wi-Fi signals (e.g. transmission protocol or excessive bandwidth).
Conducted energy could be introduced onto power or interconnecting cables.

Electrical Compatibility

Disruptions to the power supply network can result in intermittent malfunction or damage to electronic products.  These effects can be generated by inductive loads such as electrical motors when turned on and off. They can also be caused by lightning strikes or power grid momentary failures.

Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)

ESD can damage circuitry. ESD failures are caused by the rapid transfer of charge (current) and the short duration, high-energy radiated electromagnetic fields generated during the ESD event. The effects of these failures may be immediate or latent (delayed), with the failure mode ranging from a temporary deviation in the subsystem’s specified performance to damage requiring repair or replacement of the device.  Electronic systems and components are susceptible to ESD exposure during manufacturing, packaging, transportation, handling, and installation phases of their life cycle. These discharges can occur in any area but are of highest probability in hot dry climates.  Discharges often occur as a result of human contact. These discharges can be in excess of 10,000 Volts.

Understanding the Product’s Intended Environment

For any product, understanding the aforementioned causes of susceptibility as they relate to the intended environment of usage is of great importance.  A modern medical facility is packed full of electronic devices that are radiating energy and causing electrical supply fluctuations.  Medical facilities also have a high density of people that can create ESD events.  These same people are also using wireless devices that can cause susceptibility and communication issues for safety critical devices.

For other safety critical products intended environments may include locations such as industrial facilities where electrical disturbances due to switching of highly inductive and capacitive loads are likely to be present. These industrial environments may also have highly radiative and conductive potential for interference due to the usage of heavy machinery emissions.

This critical analysis of a products intended environments including manufacture, transportation, installation, and usage can provide a susceptibility assessment and analysis.  This susceptibility assessment and analysis can identify potential causes of susceptibility, provide risk assessment, and lead to a test matrix that will provide essential design verification of a product.

CVG Strategy Expertise

CVG Strategy EMI/EMC consultants can provide susceptibility analysis and recommend appropriate test methodologies to ensure reliable operation of safety critical products.  Our team has decades of experience in automotive commercial, aerospace, and defense sector testing. We can also provide assessment for coexistence of products using Wi-Fi protocols.

Service Industry Quality Management

service industry quality management
service industry quality management

Why Have a Quality Management System for Service Industry Businesses?

At first glance a Quality Management System (QMS) might appear inappropriate for service industry businesses.  There would appear to be a lack of metrics to serve as inputs, as a large portion of the product is not physical.  Customer satisfaction however is a very tangible item.  Think back on a meal at a restaurant or a hotel stay that left you less than satisfied.  How likely are you to return to that business?

Every Business Model Incorporates Process

Processes are a part of every employee function.  Where those processes can be defined, consistent performance of tasks can be accomplished.  When team members have the ability to offer feedback into process improvement they will be less frustrated by imposed systems that aren’t working as well as they should.  A frustrated employee is less able to provide a positive experience to a customer and satisfied customers means a successful business. 

Buy in by all stakeholders is the backbone of QMS and it provides the inputs for continual improvement.  These inputs can then be documented to provide dynamic process development that can evolve as a business grows.

Offsetting Quality Management System Costs

Service Industry businesses often operate with tight margins.  The immediate perception for many is that a QMS is an expensive undertaking.  While some cost is involved, these costs can often be offset by savings in process efficiency.  They of course can also be offset by the increased profitability of a satisfied customer base. 

It is important to realize that a QMS is scalable to a business’s size and is built around the context of the organization.  This means that a QMS should be built around the specific boundaries, scope, and requirements of a business.  This allows for a determination of scope and complexity for a given company’s QMS.  When a thorough analysis is made the argument could be made that a service industry business cannot afford to be without quality management. 

CVG Strategy

CVG Strategy quality experts have decades of experience in process improvement.  We have worked with businesses in many sectors achieve their goals by developing viable QMS that allow for efficient processes and satisfied customers.


Product Compliance Testing and Beyond

product compliance testing
product compliance testing

Product Compliance Testing

Product compliance testing is a requirement for bringing products to market.  These tests vary dependent on which global market sectors are being targeted.  Requirements differ from product type to product type and standards are constantly being created and revised.  It requires a great deal of effort to stay current on what testing will be required, and as always it is an expense and can delay a product development program.

Product compliance standards deal with a number of issues concerning product safety, meeting customer requirements, electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), and product ruggedness.  While these standard generally provide for qualification of a products quality and safety they can not be a guarantee that a product will meet all expectations.

Product Safety Concerns

As products become more sophisticated and capable they must be capable of consistent and reliable operation.  Failures can lead to property damage, injury, and even death.  It is no secret that product liability is a rapidly growing field in the legal profession.  Aside from legal concerns customer satisfaction and company reputation are at stake.  A brief glimpse of the news can provide ample evidence of the importance of getting product development right before product release.

EMI/EMC testing is playing a more vital role in product safety testing as dependence on electronics increases susceptibility issues.  Many test standards have less than adequate susceptibility requirements.  It is therefore critical that adequate consideration be given to the possible effects of a susceptibility issue on a product’s safety and the need for evaluation over and above that called out for in product compliance testing.

Product Quality and Sustainability

Consumers are showing an increased demand for products that support sustainability.  We are gradually moving beyond acceptance of products that must be replaced early in their life cycle.  If manufactures wish to capitalize on this trend, then developing and marketing products that can meet the rigors of a longer life span will demand thorough evaluation.  This requires an assessment of climatic and dynamic stressors likely to be encountered during a products life cycle and selection of test methodologies to evaluate their effects. 

CVG Strategy Test and Evaluation Experts

CVG Strategy offers a wide array of services to assist product developers in product compliance testing.  We also provide consulting services that can provide product evaluation to identify potential vulnerabilities and develop recommended test methods to ensure a quality product.  Our experts have decades of experience in commercial and defense product test and evaluation.